The 2019 agreement builds on the 2009 agreement and underlines the joint commitment of Singapore and France to further develop and strengthen cultural and artistic partnerships in the art and heritage sector. These include collaborative exchanges between France and Singapore, artistic exchanges in the fields of visual arts, performing arts and literary arts, as well as the sharing of knowledge between our museums. Through the instrumentality of bilateral cultural agreements between Nigeria and some 70 countries, it has created favourable framework conditions and legal conditions necessary for the mobility of their arts and culture, including cultural professionals. 2019 marks the tenth year of the cultural cooperation agreement concluded in 2009 between Singapore and France. The agreement was signed in 2009 by George Yeo, then Foreign Minister, and Bernard Kouchner, then Foreign and European Minister. Since then, cultural institutions and practitioners in Singapore and France have worked closely together to kill each other, exhibitions and other events like Singapore in France – the festival in 2015 and various editions of Voilah! France Singapore Festival. These platforms have given the two countries the opportunity to learn from each other and showcase the best of their respective artistic and cultural offerings. Minister Fu said: “The cooperation between Singapore and France over the past ten years has created many exciting opportunities for artists and creatives from both countries and brought new and varied offerings to the public of both countries. With this new convention, we hope to explore even more projects that support efforts to enrich our respective artistic and cultural scenes and develop the skills of our cultural and creative practitioners. France is widely known for its rich artistic and cultural heritage. We look forward to learning and working with them in areas such as museology and digital innovation, heritage preservation and conservation. These bilateral cultural agreements promote the exchange of cultural creators as well as various forms of cultural expression.

However, some countries, such as the United States of America and Great Britain, do not have cultural agreements with Nigeria and so it has not been too easy to penetrate these countries with their cultural expressions. The recent establishment of Nigerian cultural centres in countries such as China and Brazil has helped to promote Nigerian cultural expressions in these countries. Nigeria plans to establish at least 6 such cultural centres around the world. The country also organized an exhibition of African art that created a pathway for the exhibition of different cultural expressions between African nations. . Korea: “Cultural Agreement” signed on 4 August 1972. . . Ethiopia: “Agreement on Cooperation in the Fields of Culture, Education, Science, Media, Youth and Sports” signed in Addis Ababa on 25 June 2004. Mexico: “Agreement on Cooperation in education and culture” signed in Ankara on 3 June 1992. Afghanistan: “Cultural Agreement” signed in Ankara on 7 November 1959.

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