Pakistan`s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) secret service has been heavily involved in Afghanistan`s affairs since the late 1970s. During Operation Cyclone, the ISI, with the support and funding of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the United States, recruited mujahideen militant groups on the Pakistani side of the Durand Line to cross Afghan territory for missions to overthrow the Soviet-backed Afghan government. [55] Afghanistan Khad was one of two intelligence agencies allegedly bombing parts of the northwestern border (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) in the early 1980s. [56] The U.S. State Department has accused WAD (a KGB that created the Afghan secret service) of terrorist attacks in Pakistani cities in 1987 and 1988. [57] It is also accepted that the Afghan PDPA government supported the left-wing Organization Al-Zulfiqar of Pakistan, the group accused of hijacking a Pakistani International Airlines aircraft from Karachi to Kabul in 1981. Pakistan inherited the 1893 Agreement and the 1919 Treaty of Rawalpindi after the partition of British India in 1947. There has never been a formal agreement or ratification between Islamabad and Kabul. [34] Pakistan is of the view, and the International Convention on Legal Uti Possidetis supports the position that it should not require agreement on the border line; [32] The courts of several countries around the world and the Vienna Convention have generally confirmed by legal uti possidetis that binding bilateral agreements are “transmitted” to successor states. [35] Thus, a unilateral declaration by a party has no effect; Border changes must be done bilaterally. [36] Her Majesty`s Government in the United Kingdom has responded with regret to differences of opinion between the governments of Pakistan and Afghanistan on the status of the regions on the north-west border.

Her Majesty`s Government considers Pakistan to be, in international law, the heir to the rights and duties of the former Government of India and Her Majesty`s Government in the United Kingdom in these territories and that the Durand Line is the international border. [48] The United States and other NATO countries often ignore this sensitive issue, probably because of the potential impact on their war strategy in Afghanistan. Their commitment could weigh on relations and jeopardize their own national interests in the region. [12] This occurred after the NATO bombing in November 2011, which killed 24 Pakistani soldiers. [88] In response to this incident, Pakistan decided to cut off all NATO power lines and improve border security by installing anti-aircraft missiles and radars to monitor air activity. [89] With regard to the Durand line, some rival maps are expected to have deviations of up to five kilometres. [90] Although the Durand Line is internationally recognized as Pakistan`s western border, it is largely unknown to Afghanistan. [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] Sardar Mohammed Daoud Khan, former Prime Minister and President of Afghanistan, strongly opposed the border and began a propaganda war – but during his visit to Pakistan in August 1976 he tempered his tone by recognizing the Durand Line as an international border. [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] In 2017, former Afghan President Hamid Karzai, amid cross-border tensions, said that Afghanistan “would never recognize the Durand Line as an international border between the two countries.” [21] The resulting agreement or treaty led to the creation of a new province at the time called the northwestern province of the border, now known as Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a province of Pakistan, including FATA and border regions.